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A residential fire sprinkler system is a collection of pipes installed as a network. This network of pipes carries water from a source point, which could be via water mains or a fire pump and tank.

When a fire starts a plume of hot gases rise to the ceiling. If a sprinkler is present, a glass bulb or solder link gets hot and at a specific temperature (typically 68 deg C) breaks releasing the cap and allowing water to flow onto a specially designed diffuser.

The diffuser breaks up the water flow into carefully controlled droplets, which penetrate the fire plume and cool the burning material to below its ignition point, thus putting out the fire.

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